Leukemia is a malignant blood disease that appears as uncontrolled and abnormal proliferation of the nearby white blood cells. It is also known as blood cancer among the people. Sebebi can not be exactly diagnosed. Some theories are suggested. After showing some sort of chicken leukemia with viruses, the role of viruses in human leukemia has been searched but no definite result has been obtained. Radiation Observations made in people with leukemia effect. (Effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945) and animal experiments. It is also suggested that some chemical substances (benzol, xylol, toluol) are poisonous for bone cancer because workers with these substances have high leukemia and aplastic anemia. Leukemia disease is characterized by the presence of lymphoid leukemia, myeloid leukemia, etc., according to the type of leukemic cells that are abnormally proliferating. It takes different names. In addition, sudden and rapid start of the disease, that is, the acute form and long-lasting, that is, the chronic forms are separated from each other. Complaints related to acute leukemia cancer, fatigue, fatigue, shortness of breath, such as the front plan. Frequent persistent infections due to the deficiency of leukocytes, which are important roles in body defense, should be investigated for leukemia. There are ulcers in the mouth and throat. There is also a tendency to bleed again due to the blood cell disease. There are red-purple spots called derma ecchymoses. There may be bleeding in the gums, in the eyes, in the eyes and in the internal organs. Bone pain in children, swollen lymph glands (adenomegaly), spleen growth, symptoms in leukemia. Make the diagnosis with a blood test. The number of white blood cells in the majority of patients has increased greatly.
Leukemia; Is a broad term used to describe the increased production of malignant (white blood cells) malignant (cancerous) cells, a condition that prevents the body’s ability to produce red blood cells, platelets (platelets) and healthy white blood cells.
Every year more than 25,000 people are diagnosed with leukemia. Leukemia is 10 times more common in children than among adults; Most cases occur in people over the age of 65. There are four major types of leukemia: acute lymphocytic, acute granulocytic, chronic granulocytes and chronic lymphocytic.
In acute species, malignant cells rapidly dominate the bone marrow and leave no room for normal cells. The progression of the disease is rapid. The development of chronic leukemia species is slower and does not cause intensive deficiency of active blood cells until later in the disease. Treatments for acute and chronic leukemia types are different.
If your doctor suspects you have leukemia, A hematologist who is a specialized doctor.
HOW TO DIAGNOSE THE DIAGNOSIS?
The relationship of trust between the child and his / her family and the physician and the assistant staff is very important. The most determined and sensitive moment for the creation of this trust relationship is the first relationship between the family and the expert. It is precisely the family that is informed during this first relationship.
The disease must be explained clearly to the family, but it must be clearly stated that the healing is possible. It should not be forgotten that your parents will have great difficulty in recognizing that their children are suffering from a fatal disease. It is also necessary to specify general rules which must be followed.
A living spiritual shock leads to a grasp of only a part of what is often said. For this reason, the interview should take place in a quiet place, with the participation of the parents, the blood disease specialist responsible for the treatment, the pediatrician, and the team workers to deal with the child, over a large period of time.
The presence of a specialist other than the treatment team allows the family to continue the dialogue after the first contact, provide the family with the necessary information, and eliminate the skeptics born after the first encounter.
It will be beneficial for the family physician to participate in this view, “the healing plan will be established. For this reason, it is appropriate to have the interview complete and all the necessary information for treatment. While describing the characteristics and possibilities of treatment, it is necessary to establish a balance between the concept of deadly disease and life expectancy.
In order for the child to adopt this new situation calmly, the different aspects of her illness should be explained in an open and sincere manner. Undoubtedly, this information is an important task for the parents.
It is necessary to answer sincerely the questions, convincing the child that everything is done so that he can heal and return to the family environment as soon as possible.
Within a few hours, the child who is taken from the family environment and moved to the hospital will face a foreign environment and face troublesome medical interventions for diagnosis and treatment. The child must stay with the mother or the child of the family until this new adjustment is made.
Persons and teachers to be associated with the child should be informed about the hope of healing the leucemin. It should not be forgotten that pity and extreme protective behaviors will have negative effects on the child.
In this phase, support should be provided to the parents to alleviate the mental tension and anxiety of the parents. It would also be useful for parents to participate in the lead-in meeting on voluntary associations and related associations.
One of the important moments throughout the illness is the decision to discontinue drug treatment. Three-year treatment lasts 2-3 years and the child is followed up during one or two weeks of medication. The absence of recurrences confirms the assumption of remission of the disease. After reaching this point, the probability of the disease reoccurring is around 20 percent. This makes it possible for the child and his / her family to enter a more optimistic mental state, even though this does not provide complete confidence.
When the treatment is decided to be discontinued, interviews should be held with the family to clarify the issues that raise anxiety. Three years after cessation of treatment, the probability of recovery is 99 percent if the disease does not recur. Although it is never possible to be sure of complete healing, the patient is considered clinically ameliorated. This allows the patient to enter the adolescent period with the thought of leukemia.
Breastfeeding is a very difficult condition, a recurrence of leukemia. Others can follow the first iteration. In the first iteration, there is hope for improvement. In this period bone marrow transplantation comes into the agenda; In the next iterations hope of healing diminishes. At this point, cancer chemotherapy (medication) is continued according to the preference of the experts, or the treatment is passed to alleviate the pain and other symptoms. By choosing the second route, the child can survive in the family environment, away from the chemotherapy burden and severe side effects. Parents can not easily accept this situation. Because this is the sign of medicine and desperation for them. In this case, the treatment team should be prepared to meet and help their mental reaction to the family’s death. The acceptance of this sad truth can create the necessary peaceful environment for the family and the child. Experts have not reached consensus that it would be more appropriate to have the last days at home or in the hospital. However, the family and the treatment team usually decided to spend the last days of the child at home, which led to the patient being able to survive for longer than expected.
During the weeks and months following the child’s death, the parents will be in pain, confusion and guilt. It is more difficult to accept the death of a child than in the past, when the child mortality rate is high. The reality is that the parents who are left alone are gradually closing down and isolated from their surroundings. At this stage, families have difficulty sharing their pain with others, and the family-physician relationship is suddenly cut off.